The following is a list of publications which have made use of the meteorological data from Armagh Observatory. The list is by date of publication. The links to text are currently only available internally - contact us if you would like to request a copy.

Lloyd, H.

Note on the meteorology of Ireland deduced from the observations made in the year 1851 under the direction of the Royal Irish Academy

Trans. R. Irish Acad. Part I - Science 22, 411-498. 1854.

Scott, R. H.

Hourly readings from the self recording instruments at the seven observatories, in connection with the Meteorological Office

H. M. Stationery Office, London. 1870-1883.

Scott, R. H.

Meteorological Observations At Stations of the Second Order

H. M. Stationery Office, London. Years 1881 - 1910 (one publication per year).

Grew, S.

Meteorology at Armagh Observatory: general notes and study of rainfall

Irish Astron. J. Vol.1, 230-237. 1951.

Lindsay, E. M.

Note on the behaviour of a grass minimum thermometer

Irish Astron. J. Vol. 5, No.8, 218-220. 1959.

Rackliff, P.G.

Summer and winter indices at Armagh

Weather, Vol.XX, No. 2, 38-44. February 1965.

McNeill, I.

A Century of Irish Summers

IAJ, Vol.14, No. 5/6, 165-176. March-June 1980.

The Climate of Northern Ireland

The Meteorological Office. Climatological Memorandum 23. March 1983

Butler, C.J. and Hoskin, M. A.

The Archives of Armagh Observatory

J. Hist. Astron. 18, 295. 1987.

Butler, C.J.

Seeing Stars - Two hundred years of astronomy in Armagh

A catalogue for an exhibition to commemorate the Bicentenary of Armagh Observatory, Armagh Observatory Special Publication, 102pp. 1990.

Butler, C.J.

Maximum and Minimum Temperatures at Armagh Observatory, 1844-1992, and the Length of the Sunspot Cycle

Solar Physics 152, 35. 1994.

Butler, C.J. and Johnston, D.J. 

The Link between the Solar Dynamo and Climate - the Evidence from a long Mean Air Temperature Series from Northern Ireland

Irish Astron. J. 21, 251. 1994.

Butler, C.J. and Johnston, D.J. 

Solar activity and climate change - new evidence from Northern Ireland

The Irish Scientist No. 2, 14. 1994.

Butler, C.J. and Johnston, D.J. 

A Provisional Long Mean Air Temperature Series for Armagh Observatory,

J. Atmosph. and Terrestrial Phys. 58, 1657. 1996.

Butler, C.J. 

A two-century comparison of Sunspot Cycle Length and Temperature - the Evidence from Northern Ireland

in 'The Global Warming Debate', Report of the European Science and Environment Forum, ESEF, 215. 1996.

Bromage, B.J.I. and Butler, C.J. 

Climate Change in Mid-latitude Western Europe over the past Two Centuries - possible links to Solar Activity (preliminary results)

proc. 16th NSO/Sacramento Peak International Summer Workshop "Solar Drivers of Interplanetary and Terrestrial Disturbances", October 1995 ASP Conf. Ser. 95, 472. 1996.

Bromage, B.J.I. and Butler, C.J. 

Local climatic effects of energetic particles impinging on the atmosphere

Proc. 31st ESLAB Symp. "Correlated Phenomena at the Sun, in the Heliosphere and in Geospace", ESTEC, ESA SP-415, p 259-264. September 1997.

Betts, N.L. 


in 'Soil and Environment: Northern Ireland', J.G Cruickshank (ed), Dept. Agric. NI, Belfast, 63-84. 1997.

Wilson, R.M. 

Evidence for solar-cycle forcing and secular variations in the Armagh Observatory temperature record 1844-1992 

J. Geophys. Res. 1998.

Coughlin, A.D.S. and Butler, C.J. 

Is urban spread affecting meteorological observations at Armagh Observatory 

Irish. Astron. J. 25, 125-128. 1998.

Butler, C.J., Coughlin, A.D.S. and Fee, D. 

Precipitation at Armagh Observatory 1838 – 1997

Proc. Royal Irish Acad. Biology and Environment 96B, 123-140. 1998.

Wheeler, D.A. 

The Bantry Bay Incident, December 1796: An example of climate influences in the age of sail

Weather, Vol.53, No.7, pp.201-209. 1998.

Wilson, R.M. 

Volcanism, cold temperature and paucity of sunspot observations (1818-1858): A connection?

J. Geophys. Res. 1998.

Wheeler, D.A. 

The destruction of the French warship Droits de l'Homme, 14 January 1797: The climatic background to a famous event in English naval history 

Weather, Vol.54, No.5, pp.135-141. 1999.

Butler, C.J.

Global Warming - Man or Nature 

in Weather and Agro-Environmental Management, Proc. Agmet Millennium Conference, D.A. McGilloway (ed) Met. Eireann, Dublin, pp.68-78. February 2000.

Pallé Bago, E., and Butler, C.J. 

The Influence of Cosmic Rays on Terrestrial Clouds and Global Warming

Astronomy and Geophysics 41, 4.18-4.22. 2000.

Butler, C.J. 

Cyclic behaviour in the precipitation of England, Wales and Ireland

proc. conf. Long Term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere, Pune, India, February 1999. Beig and Gufran (eds) Vol 2, 244-249, New Age International, New Delhi. 2001.

Pallé Bago, E. and Butler, C.J. 

Sunshine Records from Ireland, cloud factors and their link to Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays

Int. J. Climat. 21, 709-729. 2001.

Pallé Bago, E. and Butler, C.J. 

Sunshine, Clouds and Cosmic Rays. The Solar Cycle and Terrestrial Climate 

Proc. of the first SOLSPA Euroconference, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sept. 2000, ESA Special Publication SP-463, A. Wilson (ed). p147. 2001.

Butler, C.J. 

The Climate Archive of Armagh Observatory 

The Irish Scientist 2001 Year Book, C. Mollan (ed) p 75. 2001.

Pallé, E. and Butler, C.J.

The proposed connection between clouds and cosmic rays: Cloud behaviour during the past 50-120 years 

J. Atm. Sol-Ter Phys. 64, 327-337.

Pallé, E. and Butler, C.J. 

Comparison between sunshine records and synoptic cloud observations: A case study for Ireland 

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. 2002 (in press).

Hickey, K.R. 

The storminess record from Armagh Observatory 1796-1999 

Weather. 2002 (in press).

García-Suárez, A.M., Butler, C.J., Cardwell, D., Coughlin, A.D.S., Donnelly, A., Fee, D.T., Hickey, K.R., Morrow, B. and Taylor, T. 

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory from 1795 to 2001:

Volume 1 - Daily, Monthly and Annual Rainfall 1838 - 2001

Editors: Smyth, A., Montgomery, W.I., Favis-Mortlock, D. and Allen, S. 

Implications of Climate Change for Northern Ireland: Informing Strategy Development

The Stationery Office Bookshop. 2002.

McAuley, B. 

Climate Change Indicators for Northern Ireland

Environment and Heritage Service Publishing Unit. 2004.

Pallé, E., Butler, C.J. and O'Brien, K. 

The possible connection between ionization in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and low level clouds

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66 1779-1790. 2004.

Ogle, N., Turney, C.S.M., Kalin, R.M., O'Donnell, L. and Butler, C.J.

Palaeovolcanic forcing of short-term dendroisotopic depletion: The effect of increased solar intensity on Irish oak

Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32. 2005.

Butler, C.J., García-Suárez, A.M., Coughlin, A.D.S. and Morrell, C. 

Air Temperatures at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, from 1796 to 2002

Int. J. Climatol. 25: 1055-1079. 2005.

Harkin, D.W., O'Donnell, M., Butler, C.J., Blair, P.H., Hood, J.M., Barros D'Sa, A.A.B. 

Periods of low atmospheric pressure are associated with high abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture rates in Northern Ireland

Ulster Med J. 74(2):113-21. September 2005.

Hickey, K.R. 

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory:

Volume V - The Storm and Gale Chronology 1796-2002

Armagh Observatory Climate Series Vol 5

García-Suárez, A.M., and Butler, C.J. 

Soil Temperatures at Armagh Observatory, N. Ireland, from 1904 to 2002

International Journal of Climatology Vol 26, Issue 8, pp 1075-1089. 30 June 2006.

García-Suárez, A.M., Butler, C.J. and Morrow, B. 

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory:

Volume 4 - Daily, Monthly and Annual Soil Temperatures 1904-2002

Armagh Observatory Climate Series Vol 4

T.J. Ansell, et al.

Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European - North Atlantic region for the period 1850-2003

Journal of Climate. 2005.

Butler, C.J., García-Suárez, A.M., Coughlin, A.D.S. and Cardwell, D. 

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory:

Vol 2 - Daily, Mean monthly, Seasonal and Annual, Maximum and Minimum Temperatures, 1844-2004

Armagh Observatory Climate Series Vol 2

García-Suárez, A.M., Park, E., Butler, C.J., Hickey, K. and Grant, A.

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory:

Vol 3 - Meta-data, 1796-2003

Armagh Observatory Climate Series Vol 3

Butler, C.J., Coughlin, A.D.S., Johnston, D.J., Cardwell, D. and Morrell, C. 

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory:

Vol 6 - Daily, Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Air Temperatures at Armagh Observatory from Series I (1796-1882) including the Dunsink Patch (1825-1833) and Series III (1844-1964)

Armagh Observatory Climate Series Vol 6

Butler, C.J., Emerson, M., García-Suárez, A.M., Pallé, E. and Kelly, S.T. 

Meteorological Data recorded at Armagh Observatory from 1795 to 2004:

Volume 10 - Daily, Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Hours of Bright Sunshine 1880 - 2004

Armagh Observatory Climate Series Vol 10

Butler, C.J. 

Possible Observations of Noctilucent Clouds by Thomas Romney Robinson

Weather, Vol. 61, No 5, p 143-144. May 2006.

Moberg, A., et al.

Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analyzed for the period 1901 - 2000

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. III, D22106. November 2006.

Croxton, P.J., Huber, K., Collinson, N. and Sparks, T.H. 

How well do the Central England Temperature and the England and Wales Precipitation series represent the climate of the UK?

International Journal of Climatology, 26: 2287-2292. 2006.

Wilson, R.M. and Hathaway, D.H. 

Examination of the Armagh Observatory Annual Mean Temperature Record, 1844 - 2004

NASA/TP - 2006 - 214434

Butler, C.J., García-Suáez, A.M. and Pallé, E. 

Trends and Cycles in Long Irish Meteorological Series

Proc. Royal Irish Acad. Biology and Environment

Wilson, R.M. 

Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming


O'Connor, B.

Report of the use of Armagh Observatory meteorological data - Total cloud amounts - in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded study on satellite remote sensing of vegetation seasonality in Ireland

Arlt, R.

The solar observations at Armagh Observatory in 1795-1797

Astronomical Notes 330, No. 4, 311-316. 2009.

Usoskin, I.G., Mursula, K., Arlt, R. and Kovaltsov, G.A. 

A Solar Cycle Lost in 1793-1800: Early Sunspot Observations Resolve the Old Mystery 

Astrophysical Journal, 700:L154-L157. 1 August 2009.

García-Suárez, A.M., Butler, C.J. and Baillie, M.G.L. 

Climate signal in tree-ring chronologies in a temperate climate: A multi-species approach

Dendrochronologia, Volume 27(3), pages 183-198. 2009.

Butler, C.J.

Climate Change - a personal view

Irish Met. Soc. Newsletter, Series 2, Edition 3. November 2010.

Stanhill, G. 

The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881-2000

J. Geophys. Res. 116, D03105. 2011.

Butler, C.J. and García-Suárez, A.M. 

A Long Relative Humidity Series for Armagh Observatory
Its relevance to the occurrence of 19th century potato famines in Ireland and atmospheric warming in the 20th century

Proceedings of the Tyndall Symposium, Dublin. Royal Irish Academy and Environmental Protection Agency. September 2011.

Galvin, S.D., Hickey, K.R. and Potito, A.P. 

Identifying volcanic signals in Irish temperature observations since AD 1800

Irish Geography, 44:1, 97-110. 2011.

Butler, C.J. and García-Suárez, A.M. 

Relative Humidity at Armagh Observatory, 1838-2008

Int. J. Climatol. 32: 657-668. 2012.

Aplin, K.L.

Smoke emissions from industrial western Scotland in 1859 inferred from Lord Kelvin's atmospheric electricity measurements

Atmospheric Environment 50 373e376. 2012.

Stevenson, J.A., et al.

UK monitoring and deposition of tephra from the May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland

Journal of Applied Volcanology, 2:3. 2013.